Endocrine Surgery (under construction)

What is Endocrine Surgery

For the head and neck surgeon, endocrine surgery focuses solely on problems affecting the thyroid gland and the parathyroid glands.  


The thyroid gland is a structure low in the neck that produces a hormone (thyroid hormone) that affects the entire body.  Patients can have an over-performing thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or an under-performing gland (hypothyroidism).  There are also a number of growths that can affect the thyroid gland.  See some of the specific thyroid problems below treated by a head and neck endocrine surgeon.


The parathyroid glands are small glands that are just beneath and adjacent to the thyroid gland.  They secrete a hormone (parathyroid hormone) that is essential to keeping a normal level of calcium in the body.  An over-active parathyroid gland (or multiple over-active glands) can produce too much parathyroid hormone.  This can lead to high calcium levels, which can cause symptoms (fatigue, muscle soreness, gastrointestinal problems, etc).  High calcium can also lead to kidney stones and bone loss (osteopenia and osteoporosis).   High calcium can also be caused by other disorders, which need to be assessed for and ruled out to determine if it is a problem with the parathyroid glands or not.  See some specific parathyroid problems below treated by a head and neck endocrine surgeon.

The midline neck includes the larynx, trachea, thyroid gland, and parathyroid glands.
The midline neck includes the larynx, trachea, thyroid gland, and parathyroid glands.

Thyroid Problems

Thyroid Nodules

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Goiter

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Graves Disease

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Toxic Thyroid Nodules

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Thyroid Cancer

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Parathyroid Problems

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

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Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

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Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism

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Parathyroid Cancer

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